Shopping from North America?

Visit our North American website for our US and Canadian stores, online ordering and product availability.

What Is The Best Metal For Sword Making?

Swords have been a significant part of human history for centuries, used for protection, hunting and warfare. The creation of a sword requires intimate knowledge of metallurgy and advanced crafting techniques to create a weapon that is deadly and visually stunning.

In this fun piece, we will discuss the process, the necessary materials (including the best metal for sword making) as well as the enhancing processes used by sword makers.


Sword-Making Process

Sword-making skills differ according to area and time period. Several cultures’ swords, such as the European longsword or the Japanese katana, demonstrate differences in techniques and customs. Regardless of these variances, when making a sword, various elements must be addressed, including the metal and construction, blade appearance, size and weight.

Period and regional differences

Eastern traditions

The diversity in sword-making skills across regions and time periods is remarkable and can provide insights into different societies’ cultural and technological developments. Sword-making has been elevated to an art form in the East, especially in Japan.

The katana (or samurai sword) is a symbol of the samurai warrior class and is steeped in history and culture. In Japanese sword-making, the Tamahagane technique includes smelting iron sand and charcoal in a clay boiler, resulting in high-quality steel known as “Tamahagane.”

After that, the steel is forged, pounded and fashioned into the final blade form. The resulting katana has a distinct wavy pattern on the blade known as the Hamon, which is generated via differential hardening and quenching of the blade.

The katana was the most common form of sword in Japan, and designed for close combat. The katana is characterised by its curved blade, which enables swift and precise cuts.

Western traditions

European sword-making techniques, on the other hand, were strongly impacted by the Roman Empire and, later, the Middle Ages. Sword-making techniques in the Middle Ages included the use of crucible steel, which was created by melting iron in a crucible with charcoal. The resulting steel was subsequently fashioned into a blade.

Pattern welding, in which layers of different types of steel are folded and forged to produce beautiful patterns on the blade, was very popular in Europe – it is known today as Damascus steel.

European swords were frequently straight and meant for thrusting as well as cutting.

Factors to consider

The material used in the construction of a sword is critical in defining the weapon’s strength, flexibility and durability. Additional variables considered by sword builders include the sword’s size and weight, the desired look of the blade and its intended function.

Metal and construction

The metal used to make swords must be strong enough to sustain fighting forces while being flexible enough not to break under repeated impacts. Originally, swords were manufactured from iron or steel, with various varieties of steel being chosen because of their superior strength and durability.

A sword’s structure is also important in influencing its strength and flexibility. Swords are frequently forged. This requires heating the metal to an elevated temperature and shaping it with a hammer and anvil.

Blade appearance

Sword makers pay close attention to the appearance of sword blades. A well-constructed sword blade not only improves the weapon’s aesthetic charm but also demonstrates the sword-abilities. Sword maker’s unique blade designs are created using various processes. Examples include the Hamon pattern found on Japanese swords and the Damascus pattern produced by pattern welding.


Size and weight

A sword’s size and weight can impact its performance and ease of use. A sword that is too heavy to handle may be difficult to control, but a blade that is too light may lack the required force to inflict damage. The size and weight of a sword should be carefully examined based on the weapon’s intended function.

Materials to consider

There are different types of metal that can be used in sword-making, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Iron was one of the first metals used in sword-making, but it is no longer widely utilised because of its low carbon content, which renders it too soft for use in a sword.

You can utilise many different types of steel to make a blade nowadays. Each steel type has distinct features and characteristics that can influence the sword’s appearance and performance. In this section, we’ll look at some of the most common types of steel blades being used in sword-making as well as their benefits and drawbacks.

Different metal types

High Carbon Steel

One of the most frequent forms of steel used in sword-making is high-carbon steel. The strength and endurance of high-carbon steel are due to the carbon content, which ranges between 0.6% and 1.7%. High-carbon steel swords can maintain a sharp edge and is resistant to damage.


  • Strong tensile strength and durability
  • Outstanding edge retention
  • High damage resistance


  • Brittle under stress
  • Requires careful maintenance to prevent rust and corrosion

Damascus Steel

Damascus steel is a type of steel formed by forging together multiple layers of various steels. This results in a blade with a distinct pattern and texture, renowned for its strength, durability and aesthetic appeal.


  • The pattern is unique and charming
  • Strong tensile strength and durability
  • Outstanding edge retention


  • Creating it can be challenging and time-consuming
  • To prevent rust and corrosion, it must be carefully maintained

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is a form of steel that contains chromium, making it rust and corrosion-resistant. It is frequently used in kitchen knives and other moisture-sensitive instruments.


  • High rust and corrosion resistance
  • Simple to maintain


  • Poor strength and durability compared to high-carbon steel
  • Inadequate edge retention

Spring Steel

Spring steel is a type of steel notable for its flexibility and strength. Commonly used in the production of springs, but also utilised in the production of swords.


  • High levels of adaptability and resilience
  • Excellent deformation resistance


  • Poor strength and durability compared to high-carbon steel
  • Inadequate edge retention

Tool steel

Tool steel is a steel that is commonly used in the production of tools and dies. It is well-known for its durability and resilience to wear and tear.


  • High toughness and wear resistance
  • Excellent edge retention


  • Lesser strength and durability than high carbon steel
  • Due to its hardness, it can be difficult to work with

Carbon steel

Plain carbon steel is a form of steel that contains carbon content but not enough to be classified as high-carbon steel. It is frequently used in the production of machine parts and other components.


  • A good combination of strength and flexibility
  • Excellent edge retention


  • Poor strength and durability compared to high-carbon steel
  • If not properly maintained, it is susceptible to rust and corrosion

Enhancing processes

Sword makers utilise several enhancing techniques, such as heat treatment, quenching and tempering to create a blade that is both strong and flexible.

Heat treatment

Heat treatment is a method of altering the physical properties of metal to make it stronger and more durable. The metal being heat treated has stages where it is first heated at a high temperature and then rapidly cooled, resulting in a hard and brittle surface that is then tempered to lessen brittleness.


Quenching is a procedure that rapidly cools metal, enhancing its hardness and strength. The metal is heated to a high temperature before being dipped in water or oil to swiftly cool it.


Tempering is a procedure that makes the metal more flexible and less likely to shatter under stress by reducing its brittleness. The metal is heated to a specified temperature before being progressively cooled.

What is the strongest metal for a sword?

The weapon’s intended purpose, size and weight determine the strongest metal for a sword. Nonetheless, due to its endurance and strength, high-carbon steel is widely regarded as the strongest metal for a sword.

Qualities to look for

When looking for the strongest metal for a sword, there are various qualities to consider, including:

  • Strength: Strong enough to endure combat stress
  • Durability: Strong enough to withstand force without bending or breaking
  • Flexibility: The ability to withstand the impact of a hit without breaking
  • Edge retention: The ability to retain a sharp edge over time

Best material for sword blades

While selecting a type of steel for sword-making, keep the intended purpose of the weapon in mind as well as the sword maker’s expertise. Because of its strength, longevity and edge retention, high-carbon steel is generally regarded as the best choice for a sword. Although distinctive and attractive blades can be made from other types of steel.

Sword makers may choose the ideal material for their project and build a steel sword that is both useful and visually beautiful by learning the properties and characteristics of different varieties of steel.

Many claim that 1060 medium-carbon steel is the best steel overall for sword-making. Medium-carbon steel has the ideal balance of hardness and strength, which impact a sword’s ability to keep a cutting edge and its overall durability. 1060 steel is also reasonably priced, making it an excellent alternative for most sword-making budgets.

Worst metals for a sword


Because of its limited strength and longevity, bronze is an unsuitable material for sword-making. Ancient ceremonies utilised bronze swords, but not for fighting.

Stainless steel

While stainless steel is a common material for kitchen knives, its low carbon content renders it too soft for use in swords.

Most popular swords in history

Some of history’s most popular swords include:

  • Katana – These legendary Japanese samurai swords are renowned for their sharpness and distinctive curved blade.


  • Gladius – A Roman sword used by legionaries and praised for its close combat effectiveness.
  • Viking Sword – A weapon used by Norse soldiers during the Viking Era that was famed for its toughness and sharpness.
  • Sabre – A curved sword used by cavalry troops in Europe and America, noted by its slicing strikes.
  • Longsword – A versatile European sword praised for its ability to cut and thrust throughout the Middle Ages.
  • Scimitar – A curved blade from the Middle East that was utilised by the Ottoman Empire and prized for its lethal strokes.
  • Jian – A straight Chinese sword admired for its flexibility and balance by martial artists.
  • Cutlass – A short sword treasured by pirates during the Golden Age of Piracy for its ease of use in close-quarters combat.
  • Rapier – A slender and pointed European sword admired for its grace and precision during the Renaissance.
  • Falchion – The single-edged medieval swords of medieval Europe are distinguished by their curved blade and chopping strength.

Use cases for swords in modern times

While swords are no longer used as weapons, they are nonetheless employed for ceremonial or aesthetic purposes in modern times. These swords are commonly used for:

  • Military Purposes – Swords are frequently utilised as a sign of honour and tradition in military ceremonies.
  • Collectables – Many people acquire swords as a hobby or because of their historical or cultural significance.
  • Martial Arts – Swords are sometimes utilised in martial arts training because of their balance and weight.
  • Decoration – Swords can be used for decorative purposes, such as displaying them in the home or business.

Looking for metal? Choose Metal Supermarkets

Many different factors determine the ideal metal for sword-making, including the weapon’s intended use, the sword maker’s talents and the materials available. While high-carbon steel is widely regarded as the best metal for a sword because of its strength and longevity, other metals, such as Damascus steel, can also be used to make distinctive and attractive blades.

You can choose the correct metal for your next project and build a beautiful, functional sword. Luckily for you, this is where we can help!

If you are a sword maker or are interested in metalworking, Metal Supermarkets is an excellent place to find the metal supplies you need. We provide a wide range of metals, including high-carbon steel, and can assist you in determining the best materials for your project.

Metal Supermarkets


Metal Supermarkets is the world’s largest small-quantity metal supplier with 125 brick-and-mortar stores across the US, Canada, and United Kingdom. We are metal experts and have been providing quality customer service and products since 1985.

At Metal Supermarkets, we supply a wide range of metals for a variety of applications. Our stock includes: mild steel, stainless steel, aluminium, tool steel, engineering steel, brass, bronze and copper.

We carry a wide range of shapes including: bars, tubes, sheets and plates. We can cut metal to your exact specifications.

Visit one of our 8 locations in the United Kingdom today.

Related blog articles